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Kinetic Pulse
a study in bullet impact
by james n. hall copyright © 2000
revised January 1,2002
copyright © 2002

Begin Quote: Book of Mormon Alma 46:11-14 11 And now it came to pass that when Moroni, who was the chief commander of the armies of the Nephites, had heard of these dissensions, he was angry with Amalickiah.

12 And it came to pass that he rent his coat; and he took a piece thereof, and wrote upon it--In memory of our God, our religion, and freedom, and our peace, our wives, and our children--and he fastened it upon the end of a pole.

13 And he fastened on his head-plate, and his breastplate, and his shields, and girded on his armor about his loins; and he took the pole, which had on the end thereof his rent coat, (and he called it the title of liberty) and he bowed
himself to the earth, and he prayed mightily unto his God for the blessings of liberty to rest upon his brethren, so long as there should a band of Christians remain to possess the land--14 For thus were all the true believers of Christ,
who belonged to the church of God, called by those who did not belong to the church. End Quote.

NOTICE: Arms though they be rocks, clubs, knives, arrows, bullets should be for the defense of "our religion, and freedom, and our peace, our wives, and our children!" December 2012

GUN CONTROL: Begins with trigger finger control,

then with bone control,

then with muscle control,

then with nerve control,

then with thought control.

In short GUN CONTROL is 'thought control' December 2013

Air Pellet Guns can be used to train new shooters; thus defraying
the artificial scarcity of the twenty-two--to maintain the gun culture.
Long live the Lewis & Clark Girandoni Air Rifle. March 2014

(For those who do not want to read the details of the theory of
Kinetic Pulse. It is simply: given two bullets of equal kinetic energy
the heavier bullet with greater mass has greater Kinetic Pulse or punch;
Similarly, the lighter bullet of less mass will disrupt less impact mass
or splash. Both will release the same kinetic energy, but the heavier bullet
will move greater target mass(ejecta) at lesser velocity than the lighter bullet
and the lighter bullet will move less target mass(ejecta) at greater velocity
than the slower bullet.)

Kinetic Pulse is the difference. Bullet construction is a factor also.

(Also for those who do not want to read the details of the theory of Kinetic Pulse.
It is simply: given two bullets of equal kinetic pulse and equal velocity
and equal mass
, the greater diameter bullet will produce a shallower crater;
similarly, the smaller diameter bullet will produce a deeper crater.. Both
will release the same kinetic energy and will move the same target mass(ejecta).

Shape is the difference. Bullet construction is a factor also.

Now the details:

The debate goes on as to whether momentum or kinetic energy is the best
measuring rod for determining the effective striking power of a bullet.
Of course the obvious answer has somehow been obscured or avoided.
What is the answer? It is to merge somehow these two parameters of
bodies in motion . What is that merge and what empirical observation
could lead to a mathematical formula to represent this OTHER measuring
rod? The easiest start to dealing with the unknown is to name it and the
author takes this easy route and coins KINETIC PULSE as the name of
the new measuring rod.

Now we have Kinetic Pulse as our quick reference to a new method of
measuring a body in motion such as a bullet or a meteor. We will confine
our study to the ballistics of the bullet.

The formula for kinetic energy for a bullet in motion is :

or symbolically:

1 grain which is 1/7000 th of a pound is equal to 1/ 225218 th of a slug.

Thus an 180 grain bullet = 180 / 225218 slug = .0007992 slug in decimals.

In order to get the correct ft-lbs of energy all measurements will converted
to slug units of mass. Thus 1 grain unit in mass is equal to 1 / 225218 slug
or in decimals is equal to .0000044 slug or 1 gr = .0000044 slug.

NOTE! what a grain weighs will be different at higher altitudes than at
sea level. A slug was intended to be the amount of mass that represented
the acceleration of mass at sea level. This may be different at 4000 feet
or 10000 feet in the mountains of Utah. The mass is the same even in
outer space but the acceleration of 1 slug of mass at 100 miles high
will not be 32.17xxxx ft/s^2. It is difficult to find the exact number
for a slug except at sea level it is the same weight in pounds as the
acceleration of gravity at that altitude. Hopefully the calculations here
are accurate enough for practical purposes. I would appreciate an email
with the acceleration of gravity at sea level in feet / sec^2 to 10 places.
As of September 9,2002 settled on 225218 as it seems to matter very little

The formula for momentum of a bullet in motion is momentum is equal to
mass times velocity and it's unit of measure is the (slug ft/sec) or

225218 resolves mass in terms of grains which is the common unit of mass for
a bullet. There are 7000 grains in a pound. Or 7000 grains = 1 lb of mass
or .0310815 slug.

The force a bullet exerts on impact is a ratio to the time it takes to stop
the bullet divided into the momentum or symbolically:

If a bullet hits an object and it stops in 1/10000 of a second the force
is for a bullet traveling a 2000 ft/s and weighing 180 gr is for example:

That is if it stops in 2.4 inches of medium 15984.6 lbs is applied.

If a bullet hits an object and it stops in 1/1000 of a second the force
is for a bullet traveling a 2000 ft/s and weighing 180 gr is for example:

That is if it stops in 24 inches of medium 1598.476 lbs of force is applied.

If a bullet hits an object and it stops in 1/100 of a second the force is
for a bullet traveling a 2000 ft/s and weighing 180 gr is for example:

That is if it stops in 20 feet of medium 159.8476 lbs is applied.

In all this slowing down in a medium the same energy is expended which is:

Now two bullets of the same momentum can have different energy content.
for example: a 360 gr bullet with a velocity of 1000 ft/s has the same
momentum of the 180 gr bullet with a velocity of 2000 ft/s which is:

The lighter 180 gr bullet has twice the energy of the 360 gr bullet. This
means that the penetration of bullets will be the same due to the same force
on the medium; but, twice as much energy will be expended on the medium at a
right angle to the direction of penetration. This will cause a greater cavity
of impact; never the less, the same depth of penetration. This is assuming the
bullets are geometrically the same dimensions and the same toughness but
only differ in weight. This is done as in a comparison, so some factors can be
canceled. If you were to predict the behavior of an object of a given geometry
and a given medium to impact all factors must be determined. But we are
here only building a comparison and these can be ignored because they will
be assumed the same in both bullets.

How can we predict the size of the cavity or crater the impact will cause?
If two bullets of equal momentum penetrate the same. The depth of the
crater is directly proportional to the momentum of the bullet. Also the
displacement of medium away from the bullet travel is proportional to the
energy. That is twice the energy as the above example demonstrates then
twice the material of the medium is moved away producing the crater or
wound in the medium. Therefore the volume of displacement of the medium is
a product of both actions of kinetic energy and momentum. Then let us find
two different bullets that will hit the medium and produce the same volume
of displacement or cavity of impact or wound as it were. In other words
some combination of momentum and energy can create the same volume of
crater or wound.

Notice the 180 gr bullet will penetrate 1.598 units into the medium and
also the 360 gr bullet will penetrate 2.014 units into the medium due to the
force translation into the medium from the momentum and the conservation
of momentum law of physics constant through the universe. Therefore the 180 gr
bullet will dispense 1598 ft-lbs along 1.598 units of medium penetration and
the 360 gr bullet will dispense 1268.870 ft-lb along 2.014 units of medium
penetration. The volume of the cavity or wound will be the same or
1.598 * 1598.476 is nearly equal to 2.014 * 1268.870 or 2566.922 close to 2567.404 .

The shallow penetration of the 180 gr bullet has greater splash or cratering.
Where the wound or crater of the 360 is narrower but deeper. But the volume
will nearly be equal.

Note! bullet construction, dimensions, toughness does not change the volume
of the pock or crater or wound--only the shape. Example the armor piercing
produces the same volume as the soft nose slug. So choose your slugs wisely.

Well enough for theory.

There is a clay pit west of Utah Lake in Utah county in Utah. After a rain
this pit is ideal for shooting bullets and measuring the pocks or craters
they produce. I consider this a simulation of the effect that ballistics
have in impact with a medium. Or I am satisfied in my mind that the theories
above fit the volume of the pocks or craters produce by bullet impact.
After pouring water into the craters of different bullets at different
velocities. The following empirical observations has derived a formula to
measure the wound or crater in clay. Which is that the volume of water that
is able to pour into the cavity produced is proportional to the energy times
the momentum or symbolically:

where f   is some factor to compensate for medium consistency. Since
the bullets were always fired into the same medium it can be eliminated.

I have named this "volume of the crater" as the KINETIC PULSE or
KILLING POWER ( if you are a hunter ) or for short reference as KP.

Guns are designed to be lethal so killing power is appropriate.

Of course KP could mean KINETIC PROTECTION for the defensive minded!

( KP can be considered a unit of measure for the physics purist. )

Therefore KP = kinetic energy * momentum or in symbolic formula using
the units of physics:

If you were an experience hunter which of these two calibers would you take
hunting dangerous game? Based on energy the 30-06 wins but based upon
momentum the 45-70 gov wins. However if kinetic pulse or kp is used
it might be arguable which one really hits the hardest when it comes to
stopping the big game. Of course now days with modern guns the old
45-70 gov can be uploaded to greater pressures and is near the 458 mag.
But let us use the factory ballistics for this example:

Now an example for the soldier. Which would you take into battle
the .45 acp or the 9mm luger? Below is typical data profile
specifications using the KP formula:

Note the energy is nearly identical. But the stopping power is not!

PS check the 200 yard specs!

Obviously the 45 acp beats in every category at 200 yards but
who would use a pistol at 200 yards and could hit any thing.

However, I have seen a 45 acp 1911 bench shot at 100 yards with all 7
rounds in a 12 inch group.

Now an example for the archer. Make sure the blades are sharp!
Ancient arrows have a blood groove for a reason.

Which dog are you afraid of, the one with the big bark or,
the quiet dog with the long snarling teeth? Or does the
narrow bullet work as well as the thicker bullet? So here
we compare the 30-06 springfield with the 6.5 X 55 swedish
at different ranges. Please consider the 1000 yard figures:

For the caveman let us compare the 5.56 NATO with the spear
with a big ugly flint folsum point weighing 2 lbs total.

May this explain the extinction of some animals or not?

Now a word about recoil. Just like momentum determines the
depth of penetration of the bullet: recoil is determined by
momentum. Due to the law of the conservation of momentum,
whatever momentum goes out forward through the barrel also
goes backward in the other direction. There is no such
equality to energy or we would certainly be afraid to squeeze
the trigger. Now let us for simplification forget the powder
that also escapes the end in blast and heat and the weight of
shooters shoulder in our calculations. The recoil comes
from the momentum of the bullet. Let us take the 30-06
springfield 150 gr and the 6.5X55 swedish with the 140 gr
as above illustrated:

What is the recoil in terms of KP units if a 7.5 lb rifle is used?

The 6.5X55 swedish has superb reputation for accuracy but perhaps it
is due to the easy recoil properties that enable the shooter to hold down
the shots because the tendency to flinch seems to be reduced. Now it is
known that some percentage of the shooters mass is added to the gun
and reduces the felt recoil. That is why a woman with smaller shoulders
will feel more recoil than a bigger shouldered man. (Don't think she will
feel the same as you did!). It takes much experience to learn to roll with
the recoil and still shoot straight. A first shot if painful could take the
recreation out of shooting.

Please note here that the momentum of the recoil is equal to the bullet momentum
in each case of the 6.5X55mm and the 30-06 springfield. Momentum is
distributed according to the rule--what goes out one end comes back the other

The great invention of the ballistics is that 99.99...% of the energy (also kp)
goes with the bullet and not to the shoulder of the marksman.

This is also the basis of the invention of Kinetic Pulse which is that
penetration is due to momentum. Cratering is due to the kinetic energy
transferred on impact which causes the lateral movement of material away
from line of penetration.

Now a parting shot or two about comparative ballistics. Energy alone will
not determine the effective bullet performance. Note the differnce
between kinetic energy and the kinetic pulse in the charts below:

Comparative Ballistic Table in 100 yard increments

                           Velocity/fps       kp/400         Kinetic Energy/fp 

             grs  Muzzle  100  200  300  400   kp   Muzzle  100  200  300  400
6.5x55       139    2790 2630 2470 2320 2163   1927   2403 2135 1883 1661 1444
270 Win.     130    3140 2885 2640 2405 2160   1678   2846 2403 2012 1670 1347
             150    2800 2615 2345 2260 2080   1996   2611 2278 1975 1701 1441
30-06 Spr.   150    2970 2860 2400 2140 1923   1577   2938 2392 1918 1525 1232
             180    2700 2490 2295 2110 1913   2236   2914 2478 2105 1779 1463

Details below:
6.5.55mm Swedish

Muzzle   4136.37 kp    139 gr   2790 ft/s   2402 ft-lb   1.72 slug ft/s   
100 yd   3464.77 kp    139 gr   2630 ft/s   2135 ft-lb   1.62 slug ft/s   
200 yd   2870.10 kp    139 gr   2470 ft/s   1883 ft-lb   1.52 slug ft/s   
300 yd   2378.32 kp    139 gr   2320 ft/s   1661 ft-lb   1.43 slug ft/s   
400 yd   1927.42 kp    139 gr   2163 ft/s   1444 ft-lb   1.34 slug ft/s   

270 Winchester

Muzzle   5157.66 kp    130 gr   3140 ft/s   2846 ft-lb   1.81 slug ft/s   
100 yd   4000.38 kp    130 gr   2885 ft/s   2402 ft-lb   1.67 slug ft/s   
200 yd   3065.32 kp    130 gr   2640 ft/s   2012 ft-lb   1.52 slug ft/s   
300 yd   2317.44 kp    130 gr   2405 ft/s   1670 ft-lb   1.39 slug ft/s   
400 yd   1678.90 kp    130 gr   2160 ft/s   1347 ft-lb   1.25 slug ft/s   

270 Winchester

Muzzle   4868.93 kp    150 gr   2800 ft/s   2611 ft-lb   1.87 slug ft/s   
100 yd   3966.20 kp    150 gr   2615 ft/s   2277 ft-lb   1.74 slug ft/s   
200 yd   3202.26 kp    150 gr   2435 ft/s   1975 ft-lb   1.62 slug ft/s   
300 yd   2560.27 kp    150 gr   2260 ft/s   1701 ft-lb   1.51 slug ft/s   
400 yd   1995.95 kp    150 gr   2080 ft/s   1441 ft-lb   1.39 slug ft/s   

30-06 Springfield

Muzzle   5810.70 kp    150 gr   2970 ft/s   2938 ft-lb   1.98 slug ft/s   
100 yd   4269.37 kp    150 gr   2680 ft/s   2392 ft-lb   1.79 slug ft/s   
200 yd   3066.14 kp    150 gr   2400 ft/s   1918 ft-lb   1.60 slug ft/s   
300 yd   2173.70 kp    150 gr   2140 ft/s   1525 ft-lb   1.43 slug ft/s   
400 yd   1577.24 kp    150 gr   1923 ft/s   1232 ft-lb   1.28 slug ft/s   

30-06 Springfield

Muzzle   6286.56 kp    180 gr   2700 ft/s   2913 ft-lb   2.16 slug ft/s   
100 yd   4930.83 kp    180 gr   2490 ft/s   2478 ft-lb   1.99 slug ft/s   
200 yd   3860.74 kp    180 gr   2295 ft/s   2105 ft-lb   1.83 slug ft/s   
300 yd   3000.33 kp    180 gr   2110 ft/s   1779 ft-lb   1.69 slug ft/s   
400 yd   2235.98 kp    180 gr   1913 ft/s   1462 ft-lb   1.53 slug ft/s   

Now here is a list various bullets and velocities that have the same
energy with in  10 ft-lbs.  Note the kp and the slug ft/s.  This should
give one the feel that energy alone or momentum alone in not the final


   8601 kp       535 gr   1450 ft/s   2497 ft-lb   3.44 slug ft/s   
   8317 kp       500 gr   1500 ft/s   2498 ft-lb   3.33 slug ft/s   
   6360 kp       295 gr   1950 ft/s   2490 ft-lb   2.55 slug ft/s   
   5936 kp       255 gr   2100 ft/s   2497 ft-lb   2.38 slug ft/s   
   5181 kp       195 gr   2400 ft/s   2494 ft-lb   2.08 slug ft/s   
   4990 kp       180 gr   2500 ft/s   2498 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   4696 kp       160 gr   2650 ft/s   2495 ft-lb   1.88 slug ft/s   
   3706 kp       100 gr   3350 ft/s   2492 ft-lb   1.49 slug ft/s   
   3326 kp        80 gr   3750 ft/s   2498 ft-lb   1.33 slug ft/s   

This is a list of various bullets and velocities that have the same
momentum more or less.  Note the kp and the energy ft-lb.  This
should give one the feel that energy alone or momentum alone in not
the final measurement. 


   1497 kp       600 gr    750 ft/s    749 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   1611 kp       565 gr    800 ft/s    803 ft-lb   2.01 slug ft/s   
   1906 kp       475 gr    950 ft/s    952 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   2152 kp       405 gr   1100 ft/s   1088 ft-lb   1.98 slug ft/s   
   2495 kp       360 gr   1250 ft/s   1249 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   2888 kp       310 gr   1450 ft/s   1447 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   3087 kp       290 gr   1550 ft/s   1547 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   3401 kp       265 gr   1700 ft/s   1700 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   3593 kp       250 gr   1800 ft/s   1798 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   3992 kp       225 gr   2000 ft/s   1998 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   4110 kp       220 gr   2050 ft/s   2053 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   4491 kp       200 gr   2250 ft/s   2248 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   4961 kp       185 gr   2450 ft/s   2465 ft-lb   2.01 slug ft/s   
   4990 kp       180 gr   2500 ft/s   2498 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   5618 kp       175 gr   2650 ft/s   2728 ft-lb   2.06 slug ft/s   
   5581 kp       165 gr   2750 ft/s   2770 ft-lb   2.01 slug ft/s   
   5776 kp       155 gr   2900 ft/s   2894 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   5988 kp       150 gr   3000 ft/s   2997 ft-lb   2.00 slug ft/s   
   7263 kp       140 gr   3350 ft/s   3488 ft-lb   2.08 slug ft/s   
     In  the examples used here no consideration was given to the diameter
of the projectile.  Therefore to answer the question as to what effect the
diameter of the bullet or projectile or meteor has on energy, momentum or
kinetic pulse,  the following is given:

     The diameter or mushrooming of the bullet does not effect the energy
or the momentum or the kinetic pulse (kp).  However the shape of the 
crater or wound cavity is changed.  A simple rule is that the larger the
bullet is ;or, becomes through mushrooming, the more shallow the crater or
wound.  This is because the larger diameter bullet must move more material
at once.  The amount of material moved does not change--it must be emphasized
to understand the impact shape.  Soft point bullets were invented or used
to take advantage of this effect as full metal jacket bullet tended  to
just pass through.  Therefore no matter what shape or diameter the bullet
the volume of the crater is the same.  Meteors that hit the earth or
moon will disintegrate upon impact and produce the widest shape craters.
Also very high velocity bullets will disintegrate or "blow up" and produce
superficial wounds.  That is why you don't use the 25-06 to hunt elk
unless you hit them  just right .  

     One thing that has not been considered is the rotation of a rifled bullet.
Let us take the 30-06 with a 150gr bullet exiting the muzzle at 3000 ft/s.
What is the rotational velocity of the bullet and what is the MAXIMUM 
POSSIBLE kinetic pulse and kinetic energy and momentum of this rotation?  
The bullet is .308 inches in diameter an moves down a 1 in 10" rifling 
twist.  The outside circumference of the bullet is PI * .308 or 
.9676105 inches.  

The bullet rotates at:
 ((velocity) times 
 (circumference of bullet) times 
 (length of 1 foot divided by twist rate)) 
 all divided by the number of inches in a foot.

Or symbolically as:
(v * Circumference / 12 / (twist  rate)) / 12

Or numerically as:
(3000 ft/s  * .9676105 *  12 / 10 ) / 12 = 290.28316 ft/s

     The outer diameter of the bullet travels at 290.283 ft/s and the
very center of the bullet does not travel at all--that is rotationally.
Now let us pretend that the mass of the bullet is all in the surface of
the bullet of 150 grains.  This means the bullet is hollow.  What is the
maximum kinetic pulse, energy and momentum?

       5.42 kp    28.061 ft-lb 0.193 slug ft/s
    5988    kp  2997.142 ft-lb 1.998 slug ft/s

By percentage:
 .09058 % kp
 .93625 % ft-lb
9.65965 % slug ft/s

     Remember most bullets are solid so these figure are very high and
the actual figures are much less.  It is nearer to one half or less
of those values due to the shape of the bullet or  APPROXIMATELY:  

   2.71 kp    14.03 ft-lb 0.0965 slug ft/s

                              ^ This is the most significant and will
                              | act at a 90 degree from the line of travel
                              | and will cause greater bullet expansion and
                              | cratering in the medium.

     (Note: we are not here figuring torque or force applied around a fixed
radius as the torque of a bullet is not understandable in the chaos of 
impact in the medium crater.  It must be set free of any rotation 
around an axis. Torque and moments of inertia imply a system within a
machine where the force is applied around an axis.)

     The volume of the crater is increased slightly by the addition of 2.726 kp
in the example above.  The point here is to get an understanding of the effect
of spin on bullet performance.  It can be generally omitted in calculations 
for practical purposes.  Spin does effect accuracy and distance of travel.
As spin allows us to stabilize slender bullets of high sectional density.
Therefore, it is still vital to modern ballistics.

     Let us put this into perspective with a car traveling 60 mph.  What kind
of units of measure discribe the accident of collision:

2 ton car traveling 60 mph hitting a tree.
 Mass = 2 tons Velocity = 88 ft/s
 Kinetic Pulse = 5,266,731,618 kp
 Kinetic Energy = 481,389.854 ft-lb
 Momentum = 10,946.678 slug ft/s

Drive carefully.

What makes a bullet slow down in air?  Essentially two factors one is air
friction and the other is the impact the bullet has with the mass of the
air or the water in the air such as rain, fog, moisture.  It is my opinion
that friction plays a smaller part in the slow down of a bullet than that of 
the impact of the bullet with the mass of the air.  We will assume it is
not raining, as rain slows the bullet and disperses the impact.  The grouping
will be larger. 

An example of this is that the mass of the air takes off momentum from the
bullet as it impacts the air molecules due to the conservation of momentum. 

Example:  What is the mass of the air in grains and in slugs that a 30-06
180 gr bullet impacts with 400 yards of air, with the follow ballistics

Weight    Velocity 100 yd increments      Energy in 100 yd increments
grains  Muzzle  100  200  300  400   kp   Muzzle  100  200  300  400
180 gr    2700 2490 2295 2110 1913   2235   2914 2478 2105 1779 1463

 Momentum at the muzzle = 2.158 slug ft/s

 Momentum at 400 yards  = 1.529 slug ft/s 

 Difference in Momentum is .629 slug ft/s

 Average velocity is 2306.5 feet / second

 Mass of the air in slugs is momentum / velocity = .629 / 2306.5 = .000272 slug
 or in grains .000272 * 225218 = 61.258 grains of air hit by the bullet.
 Of course we are not figuring in the friction so the actual mass would be
 somewhat less but not much.  Meteors heat up most probably not from 
 friction but by the actual impact with the meteor with the mass of the air.
 This means that the air at high altitudes will slow the bullet less than
 at sea level.

 Answer is .000272 slugs or 61.258 grains of air in 400 yards of air.

Traditionally in mathematics a vector can be multiplied by a scalar
and the magnitude of the vector is the product of the scalar and the
magnitude of the vector with the resultant as a vector.  Kinetic
energy is a scalar.  Momentum is vector as it acts in a direction.
KP can be a vector as KP = KE*MV or Kinetic Pulse is equal to the
product of the scalar Kinetic Energy and Momentum.  This is symbolically
represented as:

     Kinetic Pulse KP = (.5 * m * v^2) * (m * v) 

Now if a bullet is not 90 degrees from point of impact it will cause
the KP to be at the instant of impact represented by two components
according to the vector addition.

If a bullet is shot at water 3 degrees from horizontal, what KP is
the component of impact with the water 90 degrees to the surface of
the water?

Let us use a 30-06 180gr hitting water at 2690 ft/s with a total
kinetic pulse of 6216 kp and kinetic energy of 2892 ft-lb
and momentum of 2.150 slug ft/s.

The vector of kp 90 degrees to the water is equal to SIN 3 degree
times the total kp of 6216 kp or symbolically:

resultant kp 90 degrees to water is kp(water) = sin(3) * kp(total) or

kp(hitting water) = .052335956 * 6216 kp = 325.3 kp or 
approximately kp(hitting water) = 5.23% kp(total)

This means 94.77% keeps on going in the direction of bullet travel and
will probably bounce off the water at a certain angle.  Shooting into
lakes is not advisable for safety reasons.

Just how does the 5.56 Nato and 7.62x39mm compare?

5.56 Nato or 223 Remington .224 diameter bullet

Muzzle   1071 kp       55 gr     3300 ft/s  1329 ft-lb   0.806 slug ft/s
100 yd    671 kp       55 gr     2824 ft/s   974 ft-lb   0.690 slug ft/s
200 yd    406 kp       55 gr     2389 ft/s   697 ft-lb   0.584 slug ft/s
300 yd    241 kp       55 gr     2004 ft/s   490 ft-lb   0.489 slug ft/s
400 yd    137 kp       55 gr     1666 ft/s   339 ft-lb   0.407 slug ft/s
500 yd     77 kp       55 gr     1374 ft/s   231 ft-lb   0.336 slug ft/s
600 yd     46 kp       55 gr     1157 ft/s   163 ft-lb   0.283 slug ft/s

7.62x39mm or AK 47 Standard round .310 diameter bullet

Muzzle   2061 kp       123 gr   2400 ft/s   1573 ft-lb   1.311 slug ft/s
100 yd   1424 kp       123 gr   2122 ft/s   1229 ft-lb   1.159 slug ft/s
200 yd    971 kp       123 gr   1867 ft/s    951 ft-lb   1.020 slug ft/s
300 yd    655 kp       123 gr   1638 ft/s    732 ft-lb   0.895 slug ft/s
400 yd    433 kp       123 gr   1427 ft/s    556 ft-lb   0.779 slug ft/s
500 yd    289 kp       123 gr   1249 ft/s    426 ft-lb   0.682 slug ft/s
600 yd    206 kp       123 gr   1114 ft/s    338 ft-lb   0.608 slug ft/s

The only thing I can say about the 5.56 Nato is rebore all the rifles
to 6 mm and use a 70 gr bullet with the same case and the ballistics will
greatly improve with only 15 gr weight per bullet increase!

6 mm Nato with a 70 gr .244 diameter bullet and a 223 remington/5.56 Nato case.

Muzzle   1435 kp       70 gr    3100 ft/s   1494 ft-lb   0.964 slug ft/s
100 yd   1014 kp       70 gr    2759 ft/s   1183 ft-lb   0.858 slug ft/s
200 yd    702 kp       70 gr    2441 ft/s    926 ft-lb   0.759 slug ft/s
300 yd    480 kp       70 gr    2150 ft/s    718 ft-lb   0.668 slug ft/s
400 yd    323 kp       70 gr    1883 ft/s    551 ft-lb   0.585 slug ft/s
500 yd    177 kp       70 gr    1544 ft/s    371 ft-lb   0.480 slug ft/s
600 yd    140 kp       70 gr    1425 ft/s    315 ft-lb   0.443 slug ft/s

This appears to give a 34% increase in kinetic pulse and a down range velocity
increase of 268 ft/s at 600 yards.  Also the bullet will hit 11 inches higher 
at 600 yards suggesting flatter trajectory.  And will add approximately 3.5 oz 
per 100 rounds of carrying weight.  Perhaps that weight increase is worth 
the improved performance.  

BETTER YET USE THE 6.8 Remington SPC with the 270 bullet  but the cost of
conversion is greater.

6.8 Remington SPC Ballistics chart

             Muzzle 100 yd. 200 yd. 300 yd. Muzzle 100 yd. 200 yd. 300 yd. 
115-gr. FMJ  2,800  2,523   2,202   2,017   2,002  1,622   1,250   1,039 
115-gr. BTHP 2,800  2,535   2,285   2,049   2,002  1,644   1,345   1,075 
115-gr. MK   2,800  2,535   2,285   2,049   2,002  1,644   1,345   1,075 
*24-inch Barrel


Mass = 115 Velocity = 2800 Kinetic Pulse = 2861.762 kp Kinetic Energy =
2001.616 ft-lb Momentum = 1.430 slug ft/sec Energy/Momentum = 1400.000 E/M

Mass = 115 Velocity = 2523 Kinetic Pulse = 2093.685 kp Kinetic Energy =
1625.172 ft-lb Momentum = 1.288 slug ft/sec Energy/Momentum = 1261.500 E/M

Mass = 115 Velocity = 2202 Kinetic Pulse = 1391.911 kp Kinetic Energy =
1237.939 ft-lb Momentum = 1.124 slug ft/sec Energy/Momentum = 1101.000 E/M

Mass = 115 Velocity = 2017 Kinetic Pulse = 1069.737 kp Kinetic Energy =
1038.668 ft-lb Momentum = 1.030 slug ft/sec Energy/Momentum = 1008.500 E/M

I have read in Parker O. Ackley's (Utah gunsmith) fine reloading book the 
discussion of hydrostatic shock in tissue. I also have personal 
experience with this effect in certain mediums.  I believe that there is a 
pressure wave created when the bullet hits tissue at speeds greater than 
2800+ ft/s.  This may be due the speed of sound in tissue.  This means that 
the tissue on impact can not bounce off the bullet and accumulates as a wave 
in front of the bullet travel path.  This has the effect of making the medium 
more dense and increases the transfer of momentum or depletion of momentum 
from the bullet.  Simply this means the bullet will penetrate less than if 
it were traveling slower (that is less than 2800 ft/s).  Thus more energy per 
unit of bullet penetration is expended.  The 5.56 NATO drops below 2800 ft/s 
around 100 yards.  What this all means is there will be an explosive impact 
at distances under 100 yards.  This is perhaps greater at 25 yards than 75 
yards due to the rapid loss of energy during bullet travel in air.  If you 
hit water with a hammer on a cement side walk you can observe that the water 
travels at much higher velocity than the velocity of the hammer in the first 
place.  Thus an expanding bullet can create a hydrostatic shock by 
mushrooming and forcing the medium or tissue to have to move around the bullet 
even though it is traveling less than 2800 ft/s.  This is similar to the water 
at the face of the hammer is accelerated when hit on a hard surface.  The 
tissue become like a hard surface.  Anyone who has 'belly flopped' can attest 
to the slap of the water effect.  So the 5.56 NATO will slap energy into the
wound cavity at speed greater than 2800 ft/s or at distances under 100 yards.
Therefore at ranges beyond 100 yards the hydrostatic shock may not
be seen unless a bone is hit or the bullet is tumbling.

Note:  Larger diameter bullets will cause greater pressure waves but then
they slow down in air to below 2800 ft/s faster also.

I guess what I am suggesting is that at different velocities the medium of 
impact behaves by way of resistance differently.  For example by personal 
experiments I have shot arrows into water 20 feet down  into water and hit 
objects.  Also I have shot bullets into water and the bullet never goes that 
deep.   Another example:  I was ask to test a new bullet proof plastic that 
was to be used in a secure area.  I chose the 30-06 180gr to make tests and 
the standard military ball of full metal jacket.  The bullets bounce off the 
material with a big dent and came near hitting me at some yards back.   Then 
because of the near wound experience I took a .22 rimfire and stepped to the 
side a ways and let fly with the semi-auto .22 and after part of box of 50 I 
examined the plastic.  The .22 penetrated the plastic and fragments of lead 
went completely through with sufficient velocity to penetrate the wood box 
it was leaning against.  Who knew the .22 would make the  'bullet proof' 
plastic unsafe.  (Actually only one .22 rimfire was needed to penetrate  the 
plastic as it was discovered that the lead would heat up the plastic on impact
and soften allowing the flattened lead bullet to squeeze through a rupture in
the softened plastic.  It appeared that when the plastic was slightly heated
it would greatly lose its strength.  The .22 would penetrate the warm plastic.
Perhaps the 30-06 was going too fast to heat the plastic to penetrate.)
The hydrostatic shock that is being  referred to here is not the wave of 
pressure that would go through the whole body of tissue (as some think) but 
the reaction of the medium of going to the next level of resistance and build 
a wall of greater momentum absorption.  If the material medium does this there 
will be sudden release of  remaining bullet energy to make very shallow but 
wide crater especially if the bullet blows up.  I was hunting with my brother 
in the Utah mountains and a buck at 200 yards showed up and my brother with a 
6 mm Remington with 100 gr bullet hit the front shoulder and the bullet splash 
off the deer  and the wound was wide and the bullet fragmented I followed the 
deer for hours till it was downed.  This was a max loaded 6 mm with soft point 
bullets.  I should have loaded Noslers or Barns and the deer would not have 
gone anywhere.   The point is, at different velocities in a medium the medium
does not absorb momentum equally or linearly.  There is a curve of resistance.
P. O. Ackley could be wrong about the hydraulic wave of whole body damage.
But  Perhaps at 2800 ft per second the animal tissue will adsorb greater
momentum per distance traveled in the medium causing greater energy release.  
Otherwise there is no explanation for explosive wounds with the 5.56 NATO.  
The 5.56 NATO is a very short range military piece.  It also has  endangered  
our soldiers due to inconsistencies.  I have shot 5 gallon plastic jugs of 
water with slow moving bullets and they just pass through.   At high velocity 
the  same bullets never go the distance and break up in pieces even with full 
metal jackets.   The water gets 'harder' at higher velocities.   Perhaps this 
is a hydrostatic shock.   Water can only get out of the way so fast.   When 
the water can NOT move away it piles up in front of the bullet and offers 
greater momentum drain off per distance of penetration.   If this happens BANG 
the energy is released  faster per distance of penetration due the the 
universal laws of physics.  Obviously more experiments are warranted to 
study so back to the reloading bench for the next plinking trip.

Update from plinking trip as of Oct 27,2001:

        Date of test October 27, 2001 3:00pm  

        Bright Sunny day.  

        Rifle Ruger Mini 14 .223 cal or 5.56 Nato chambering.

        Both bullets were fired forty feet from test material.

        The test was with two sets of three plastic bottles of water and a 
        backstop of two plywood sheets of 1/2" and 3/4" thickness 2 feet apart.
        The 1/2" plywood was in front of the 3/4" plywood sheet.
        Two bottles were of 1 quart each.
        Four bottles were of 1 gallon each.
        The quart bottles were in front of the two gallon bottles in front of 
        the plywood back stops for each trial.  The bottles were 1/2" apart.
        The bottles were 6" in front of the 1/2" plywood and the 3/4" plywood
        was 24" behind further.

        Hot load was 55gr full metal jackets on top of 23 grains of 2230 for 
        a velocity of 3200 ft/s.
        Soft load was 55gr full metal jackets on top of 18 grains of 2230 for
        a velocity of 2650 ft/s.


        Hot load:

        First quart bottle penetrated both sides clean no bottle rupture.
        Second gallon bottle penetrated both sides with explosive rupture and 
        energy display.
        Third gallon bottle penetrated both sides with mild explosive rupture.
        Forth plywood 1/2" hit but not penetrated.
        Fifth plywood 3/4" not touched.
        Total remaining bullet weight is 49 grains. 
        Could not find missing 6 grains of lead.
        Bullet intact with flattened shape only loss of lead from shape 
        distortion with no loss of jacket.

        Soft load:

        First quart bottle penetrated both sides clean no bottle rupture.
        Second gallon bottle penetrated both sides with explosive rupture and 
        energy display but not as great.
        Third gallon bottle penetrated both sides with mild explosive rupture.
        Forth plywood 1/2" hit and completely penetrated.
        Fifth plywood 3/4" hit and penetrated 1/2" as bullet stuck in board.
        Total remaining bullet weight is 53 grains counting small lead 
        Total remaining bullet weight is 46 grains not counting small lead 
        Found lead extrusion from misshapen bullet.
        Bullet intact with flattened shape only loss of lead from shape 
        distortion with no loss of jacket.
        Pictures of the actual bullets
        The conclusion is that the higher velocity bullet met up with greater
        resistance and stopped with less penetration but with greater 90 degree
        energy display.

        Also the slower bullet penetrated more material with less 90 degree
        energy display. 

        Perhaps P. O. Ackly was right about the 2800+ ft/s hydro static shock 

        If I were hunting big dangerous game I think that I would use a 

Addendum to the above test:
February 18,2002 Monday.  Another sunny day at the usual place the shooting
pit.  This time the test is with the .45 ACP with 230 grain military ball.
This test involved five one gallon jugs of water of the same dimensions as the
5.56 NATO test above.   The distance from the jugs which were in a straight
row is forty feet from the test gun.  The test gun is a Brolin 'colt wanabee' 
45 acp.   Results of the test was two shots.  The first shot missed everything.
I was surprised as my son said "Dad you missed!"  I said "Tell me about it."
This was newly acquired gun which I had never fired before.  The second shot
hit the string of bottles dead center and passed through all five bottles
rupturing the plastic and all were immediately empty but the last bottle 
retained some water of about a half quart.  The bullet hit the dirt bank behind
and was retrieved.  The bullet buried itself in the embankment  three inches.
 Pictures of the .45 acp bullet
 Conclusion is that slow moving bullet do penetrate plenty and deep.
according to the momentum factor which is .868 slug ft/s for the .45 pistol and
.806 slug ft/s for the 5.56 Nato or .223 Remington Ruger Mini 14.

45 ACP 230 grain
Muzzle    320.25  kp      230 gr      850 ft/s   368.926 ft-lb   0.868 slug ft/s
5.56 Nato 55 grain
Muzzle   1071     kp       55 gr     3300 ft/s  1329     ft-lb   0.806 slug ft/s

What does it mean when a cartidge is said to be efficient?

When a cartidge with a certain range of bullets have kinetic
energy and momentum peak together then maximum kinetic pulse is possible.
If for example kinetic energy peaks with 150 gr bullets and momentum
peaks with 180 gr bullets the pressure curves are not designed right.
But if the kinetic energy peaks at 165 grains and the momentum also peaks
at 165 grains then there is efficiency in the pressure curves of the powder
and cartidge dimensions.  If you want a certain bullet to get maximum
benefit from the cartridge design and powder then the momentum and the
kinetic energy should reach maximum with this weight bullet.  I will use
the 6.5x55mm and 7x57mm Mauser as an illustrations:

6.5x55mm Swedish
Weight  Velocity  Kinetic Pulse  Kinetic Energy  Momentum
100 gr  3090 ft/s  2908 kp        2120 ft-lb      1.372 slug ft/s
120 gr  3000 ft/s  3832 kp        2398 ft-lb      1.598 slug ft/s
129 gr  2880 ft/s  3917 kp        2375 ft-lb      1.650 slug ft/s
140 gr  2790 ft/s  4197 kp        2415 ft-lb      1.734 slug ft/s <-- best
150 gr  2620 ft/s  3989 kp        2286 ft-lb      1.745 slug ft/s
160 gr  2480 ft/s  3848 kp        2185 ft-lb      1.762 slug ft/s

Anyone who has used the 6.5x55mm with different bullets find that the
140 gr is hard to beat for flat shooting and hard hitting.  I personally
do not use the other weight bullets at all.

7x57mm Mauser
Weight  Velocity  Kinetic Pulse  Kinetic Energy  Momentum
100 gr  3200 ft/s  3230 kp        2273 ft-lb      1.421 slug ft/s
120 gr  3000 ft/s  3832 kp        2398 ft-lb      1.598 slug ft/s
130 gr  2886 ft/s  4004 kp        2404 ft-lb      1.666 slug ft/s
140 gr  2800 ft/s  4241 kp        2437 ft-lb      1.741 slug ft/s
150 gr  2736 ft/s  4543 kp        2493 ft-lb      1.822 slug ft/s
162 gr  2626 ft/s  4684 kp        2480 ft-lb      1.889 slug ft/s <-- best
175 gr  2457 ft/s  4478 kp        2345 ft-lb      1.909 slug ft/s
195 gr  2290 ft/s  4501 kp        2270 ft-lb      1.983 slug ft/s

P. O. Ackley has stated that the 7x57mm Mauser is probably the most efficient
cartridge ever developed.  Perhaps he was right.  These numbers are impressive.
Therefore the most efficient bullet weight to use with the 7x57 is the 160 
grain bullet.  Although the other bullet weights are close. This suggest a
very well designed cartridge.  Since the 7x57mm is over 110 years old and 
still going strong attest to the veracity of these good numbers!  The kp 
rating of 130 grain to 195 grains is very flat of 4023 kp to 4522 kp.  It is
too bad the cartidge manufactures underload this round.  Handloaders can make
this 7x57mm Mauser sing in a modern rifle.

How does the ratio of energy to momentum help understand ballistics.
The ratio can be named energy per momentum.

energy per momentum or E/M = (.5mv^2 / mv)  (ft-lb/slug ft/s).  

E/M is directly proportional to velocity as it is numerically one half velocity.
Therefore a indespensible measure of ballistic properties is velocity and must
be always included in data to get the full parametric discription of the
bullet or projectiles action on impact.

This means that a bullet that has 
  2270.632 ft-lb of energy and 1.983 slugs ft/s traveling 2290 ft/s will have
  .5 * 2290 (ft-lb)/(slug ft/s) 
  1135 (ft-lb/slug ft/s)   
or E/M = 1135

To illustrate with an example for comparison of two cartridges of similar
momentum but divergent energy:

45 ACP 230 grain has 425.03  E/M
Muzzle    320.25  kp      230 gr      850 ft/s   368.926 ft-lb   0.868 slug ft/s
5.56 Nato 55 grain has 1648.88  E/M
Muzzle   1071     kp       55 gr     3300 ft/s  1329     ft-lb   0.806 slug ft/s

This math says that the 5.56 Nato is more 'explosive' so to speak.  But that
is obvious.

Does bullet construction and weight really have that much importances?

We will go to the scenario to find out.

Let us take one shot at a rabid bear with the following ballistics:

1 shot total kp of 1886 kp, 
total energy 971 ft-lb, 
total 1.943 slug ft/s 
with 1 ounce slug

Weight         Velocity KP           Kinetic Energy Momentum
437.5 gr       1000 ft/s 1886 kp      971 ft-lb      1.943 slug ft/s

OR Let us take two shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics:

2 shots with total kp of 943 kp, 
total energy 971 ft-lb, 
total 1.943 slug ft/s 
with 1/2 ounce slugs

Weight          Velocity  KP          Kinetic Energy Momentum
218.75  gr      1000 ft/s  471 kp      486 ft-lb      0.971 slug ft/s

OR Let us take four shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics:

4 shots with total kp of 471 kp, 
total energy 971 ft-lb, 
total 1.943 slug ft/s 
with 1/4 ounce buck shot

Weight          Velocity  KP          Kinetic Energy Momentum
109.375  gr     1000 ft/s  117 kp      242 ft-lb      0.486 slug ft/s

OR Let us take eight shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics:

8 shots with total kp of 234 kp, 
total energy 971 ft-lb, 
total 1.943 slug ft/s 
with 1/8 ounce buck shot

Weight          Velocity   KP         Kinetic Energy Momentum
 54.6875  gr    1000 ft/s   29.5 kp    121 ft-lb      0.243 slug ft/s

OR Let us take sixteen shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics:

16 shots with total kp of 117 kp, 
total energy 971 ft-lb, 
total 1.943 slug ft/s 
with 1/16 ounce buck shot

Weight          Velocity    KP         Kinetic Energy Momentum
 27.34375  gr   1000 ft/s    7.369 kp   60.706 ft-lb   0.121 slug ft/s

OR Let us take thirty two shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics:

32 shots with total kp of 59 kp, 
total energy 971 ft-lb, 
total 1.943 slug ft/s 
with 1/32 ounce pellets 

Weight          Velocity    KP         Kinetic Energy Momentum
 13.671875  gr  1000 ft/s    1.842 kp   30.353 ft-lb   0.061 slug ft/s

OR Let us OR take sixty four shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics:

64 shots with total kp of 29 kp, 
total energy 971 ft-lb, 
total 1.943 slug ft/s 
with 1/64 ounce pellets

Weight          Velocity    KP         Kinetic Energy Momentum
  6.8359375  gr 1000 ft/s    0.461 kp   15.177 ft-lb   0.030 slug ft/s

Now all shooting sessions expended the same energy and the same momentum
but which session would you most likely could survive?  For me and mine
I would take the single shot with the 1985 kp rating.  The sixty four
shots with the 1000 ft/s 6.84 gr pellets is no better that hunting with a
pellet gun.  Even though the total energy and momentum was the same the 
results would be a hunter up a tree at best.  HOPE THAT BEAR CAN'T CLIMB 

This whole scenario is to demonstrate that bullet construction and weight
is of prime importances to bullet impact and Kinetic Pulse.  

Also this is the same thing that happens when a shotgun hunter selects the
right size pellet for the shot in the "skatter gun".  It is known that some
pellets don't even get through the feathers.

For the math wizzard the above formulas are based upon the fact that adding
the kp of two bullets of 1/2 the weight is not equal to the Kinetic Pulse of
a single bullet of one bullet of double the weight.

Adding the kp of two bullets of mass m:

(1/2 m * v^2) * (m * v) + (1/2 m * v^2) * (m * v) = m^2v^2(1/2v + 1/2v) = m^2v^3

This is the total kp of the two bullets kp = m^2v^3

Adding the kp of ONE bullet of mass 2m or m + m.

(1/2 (2m) * v^2) * ((2m) * v) = mv^2 * 2mv = 2 * m^2v^3

Adding the kp in the formula for a single bullet kp = 2 * m^2v^3

For the physics guru the momentum transfer is the reason that kp diminishes
when the bullets separate.  It is not just the air resistance increase alone.
That is why shotguns at a distance are not as effective as right up close 
with the pack of pellets nearly act as one bullet!
Where does the Shotgun Slug rate in hitting power among big guns as
legend has it these guns are heavy hitters?

Using the Ballistics Data from the Remington Catalog the following specs
for the 12 gauge slug are:

45-70 Gov at 100 yards 
Mass = 405 Velocity = 1168 
Kinetic Pulse = 2576 kp  
Kinetic Energy = 1226 ft-lb 
Momentum = 2.100 slug ft/s

.444 Marlin at 100 yards 
Mass = 240 Velocity = 1815 
Kinetic Pulse = 3395 kp  
Kinetic Energy = 1755 ft-lb 
Momentum = 1.934 slug ft/s

12 gauge slug shotgun 1 oz load at 100 yards
Mass = 437 Velocity = 1283 
Kinetic Pulse = 3976 kp    <--------------  
Kinetic Energy = 1597 ft-lb 
Momentum = 2.489 slug ft/s

30-06 at 100 yards 
Mass = 180 Velocity = 2522 
 Kinetic Pulse = 5123 kp  
Kinetic Energy = 2542 ft-lb 
Momentum = 2.016 slug ft/s

405 Winchester
Mass = 300 Velocity = 1859 
Kinetic Pulse = 5700 kp  
Kinetic Energy = 2302 ft-lb 
Momentum = 2.476 slug ft/s
Momentum = 79.264 pound ft/s *
* (info taken for American Rifleman
by Bruce M. Towsley
Article "Handloading The .405 Win." Jan 2002)
35 Whelen  100 yards 
Mass = 250 Velocity = 2197 
Kinetic Pulse = 6534 kp  
Kinetic Energy = 2679 ft-lb 
Momentum = 2.439 slug ft/s

458 Win Mag at 100 yards 
Mass = 450 Velocity = 1901 
Kinetic Pulse = 13714 kp  
Kinetic Energy = 3610 ft-lb 
Momentum = 3.798 slug ft/s

375 Rem Ultra Mag at 100 yards 
Mass = 300 Velocity = 2505 
Kinetic Pulse = 13945 kp  
Kinetic Energy = 4179 ft-lb 
Momentum = 3.337 slug ft/s

Comments on the new 17 caliber Rimfire from Hornady

.22 Win Mag at muzzle             .22 Win Mag at 100 yards

Mass = 33 Velocity = 2000         Mass = 33 Velocity = 1495 
Kinetic Pulse = 85.88 kp          Kinetic Pulse = 35.869 kp 
Kinetic Energy = 293.054 ft-lb    Kinetic Energy = 163.746 ft-lb 
Momentum = 0.293 slug ft/s        Momentum = 0.219 slug ft/s
ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 1000            ENERGY/MOMENTUM =  749

.22 Long Rifle at muzzle          .22 Long Rifle at 100 yards
Mass = 40 Velocity = 1255         Mass = 40 Velocity = 1017 
Kinetic Pulse = 31.177 kp         Kinetic Pulse = 16.590 kp 
Kinetic Energy = 139.869 ft-lb    Kinetic Energy = 91.849 ft-lb 
Momentum = 0.223 slug ft/s        Momentum = 0.181 slug ft/s

Below is the New .17 caliber Hornady Magnum Rimfire as found in Shooting Times page 43 Feb 2002
.17 HMR  at muzzle                .17 HMR  at 100 yards             .17 HMR  at 200 yards
Mass = 17 Velocity = 2616         Mass = 17 Velocity = 1929         Mass = 17 Velocity = 1423 
Kinetic Pulse = 51.002 kp         Kinetic Pulse = 20.448 kp         Kinetic Pulse = 8.209 kp 
Kinetic Energy = 258.284 ft-lb    Kinetic Energy = 140.439 ft-lb    Kinetic Energy = 76.424 ft-lb 
Momentum = 0.197 slug ft/s        Momentum = 0.146 slug ft/s        Momentum = 0.107 slug ft/s
ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 1311            ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 962             ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 714

The ENERGY/MOMENTUM tells me the 17 Hornady is explosive up close.

quote: by Rick Jamison, Reloading/Rifles Editor Page 45 of Shooting Times page 45.
"In the animal glue expansion medium, 
the 17-grain V-Max penetrated two inches at 25 feet, 
three inches at 100 yards, 
and four inches at 200 yards."

The article states that the bullet fragmented at 25 feet and mushroomed 
at 100 yards and at 200 yards only lost the plastic tip.

The question is why the bullet at 25 feet only penetrated 2 inches?

There are three answers:  

1.  Kinetic Pulse disperses as the bullet fragments as there is not a sum of
    kp for the parts that equal the solid bullet kp.
2.  The medium was offering different resistances due to the 'hydrostatic'
3.  Both the above apply.

My preferred answer is the third answer.

It still looks like the .22 Win Mag is the heavier hitter at long range but
the trajectory has more drop.  The 200 yard stats on the .22 Win Mag is usually
the same as the .22 Rimfire at 100 yards which is still higher than the .17 .

The question might be asked if the .22 Mag Rimfire will use a better bullet
with better coefficient of ballistics to get flatter trajectory.

Of course you can down load the .223 Remington to reduce noise and use very
light bullets to get the shallow wound for 'virmin'.


Why do heavier bullet tend to carry more KP?


Due the unversial law of momentum the heavier object hitting a lighter
object move the lighter object onward and the heavier object only slows down.
If a lighter object hits a heavier object the lighter object tends to bounce
back and the energy is not distributed into the heavier object.  This rule
applies to impact mediums also.  The heavier the object is the greater the
transfer of momentum to the medium.  The heavier the medium the greater the
tendency to bounce back the object of impact.  When there is this 'bounce'
the energy is not transfered to the medium.  Since KP has a component of
momentum (KP = E * M) then this same principle applies to KP.  For example
let us look at the KP of the Winchester 308 and the 7mm-08 Remington to
see the KP of different weight bullets.  For example:

CARTRIDGE       Weight  muzzle  100yard 200yard 300yard 400yard 500yard
308_Winchester   180gr  5694 kp 3723 kp 2366 kp 1464 kp  895 kp  564 kp
308_Winchester   150gr  5361 kp 3679 kp 2474 kp 1620 kp 1038 kp  658 kp
308_Winchester   168gr  5250 kp 4227 kp 3382 kp 2680 kp 2112 kp 1649 kp
7mm-08_Remington 120gr  3799 kp 2847 kp 2113 kp 1546 kp 1112 kp  791 kp
7mm-08_Remington 140gr  4480 kp 3588 kp 2851 kp 2249 kp 1758 kp 1362 kp

The ballistics is for commercial manufacture but the general idea is the
same for the military full metal jacket round.

Notice how the 168 grain 308 (7.62 NATO) has the highest down range KP at
500 yards.  Also the 7mm-08 Rem 140 grain bullet performs better than the
150 grain 308 Win.  It is known that the match ammo of military usage is about
162 grains.  Perhaps to penetrate down range through more air at 1000 yards
the heavier bullet is needed.  Also the wind bucking is better with the
heavier bullet than the 147 grain standard nato round.  However I would use
the 190 grain or 180 grain in the 30-06 so the greater case capacity can
get the heavier bullet going within effective ranges.  The 308 does not do
as well the 30-06 with heaver bullets.  Perhaps a 180 grain with a match
profile will do better than this data indicates but the idea is the same.

So the simple answer is that heavier bullets have more mass and impact transfer
is subject to the laws of physic where a heavier object moves the lighter object
with out this 'bounce'.  Passing through air then uses this principle; because
air remains the same density the heavier the bullet the better it passes 
through air without the bounce back.  More KP means more Momentum.

In the changing battle field of the future what round would one 
recommend for the M14?  The data above would indicate that one should either
change the bullet weight or the bore diameter.

If one is to stay with the same recoil properties and weight of bullet
one should reduce the bore diameter to .284 or 7mm and use the 7mm-08 Remington 
with a 140 grain bullet.  This gives twice the KP at 500 yards than the .308 
calibre 147 grain bullet.  Otherwise increase the weight of the .308 bullet
to 165 grains to get the range increase.  The battle fields of the future will
be over long distances.  Such would be an improvement for the M14 for distance. 


I used to break up cement as a young man on a city repair crew.  The sledge
hammer was a tool that was used where the air hammer was not practical.
This was usually small jobs.  But the hammer would bust up concrete with
sharp impact.  I have also seen bullets hit rocks and cement and have not
seen the same damage as the hammer.  The energy in the hammer is very much
less than the bullet but the damage was at least impressive to a 
young man.  The measuring rod of energy is inadequate and the momentum 
only approach is also inadequate.  Kinetic Pulse can measure both the
hammer and the bullet and describe the overall results AT LEAST BETTER.

HAMMER: 8 pound sledge hammer
 Mass = 56000 gr 
 Velocity = 60 feet / second 
 Kinetic Pulse = 6677.188 kp        <-- crator effect of impact
 Kinetic Energy = 447.566 ft-lb     <-- splash effect of impact
 Momentum = 14.919 slug ft/sec      <-- punch effect of impact
 Energy/Momentum = 30.000 E/M

BULLET:  150 grain bullet
 Mass = 150 gr 
 Velocity = 2900 feet / second 
 Kinetic Pulse = 5409.291 kp        <-- crator effect of impact
 Kinetic Energy = 2800.620 ft-lb    <-- splash effect of impact
 Momentum = 1.931 slug ft/sec       <-- punch effect of impact
 Energy/Momentum = 1450.000 E/M

Every bullet on impact has crator, splash, punch properties and
the proper selection of bullet weight , velocity, and bullet construction  
will control these effects.

Momentum mostly determines punch.
Kinetic Energy mostly determines splash.
Kinetic Pulse determines crator.

Post Script:  I have seen an arrow penetrate several feet of wet sand yet
a bullet from a high velocity rifle will only penetrate a few inches or
less than a foot.  Also in a local gun store there is a large bell that was
used as a target.  There are dents and holes in the bell.  These shots were
mainly to demonstrate the effectiveness of the pistol round.  The 357 mag
punctured the metal where the 45 acp put a large dent.  Other common pistol
rounds were labeled aside from the bullet impact.  A gunsmith I know said he
ran experiments with 1/4 inch steel plate and said that a 5.56 nato round 
will penetrate the 1/4 inch steel plate easily where a 45-70 Government does
not.  Yet he has taken elk with the 45-70 and the bullet has penetrate stem
to stern and exited the elk with a sure kill.  Puncturing steel may be
useful in combat but most game are not carrying body armor made of steel but
fur and hide.  The 7.62X25mm Tokarev will also penetrate the bell in this gun 
shop as well as the 44 Remington Mag.  Are we to say that the 30 cal Tokarev
can be used on bear as well as the 44 Mag? Common Sense and Intuition betray
this equation.  Generally,  hard mediums like steel will be punctured by a
high velocity bullet but in soft mediums like clay or water the slow bullet
will do better.  The 45-70 Government will take down any game on earth with
surety.  The 5.56 Nato will not be as effective on most large size game unless
the game is hit in a vital area where shallow penetration is suffient.  In all
the experiments I have conducted the  nature of the medium  is to be 
considered in the collision of an object such as a bullet or meteor with this 
medium.  Even though the 45 acp did not penetrate a bell made of metal this
venerable round has been battle proven for almost a century.  The 45-70 Gov
is even older and today new rifles in 45-70 Gov, pistols 45 acp are being
sold and made.

Now how does your favorite cartridge calibre match up with the venerable
30-06 180 grain 30 calibre as comparison listed below:

name                 brand              bullet                       weight muzzle kp% 100 yard kp% 200 yard kp% 300 yard kp% 400 yard kp% 500 yard kp%
-------------------- ------------------ ---------------------------- ------ ---------- ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------
22_Hornet            Winchester         jacketed_hollow_point            34      5.15%        2.19%        0.80%        0.38%        0.28%        0.25%
222_Remington        Winchester         Ballistic_Silvertip              40      9.58%        7.69%        6.10%        4.70%        3.54%        2.60%
22_Hornet            Remington          pointed_soft_point               45      6.18%        3.37%        1.67%        0.88%        0.68%        0.61%
22_Hornet            Remington          jacketed_hollow_point            45      6.18%        3.37%        1.67%        0.88%        0.68%        0.61%
218_Bee              Winchester         hollow_point                     46      6.98%        3.83%        1.92%        1.00%        0.72%        0.66%
222_Remington        Remington          pointed_soft_point               50     12.11%        8.57%        5.80%        3.76%        2.39%        1.68%
222_Remington        Remington          V_Max_boattail                   50     12.11%       10.04%        8.19%        6.55%        5.13%        3.97%
222_Remington        Remington          hollow_point_power_lokt          50     12.11%        8.89%        6.30%        4.29%        2.86%        1.99%
222_Remington        Remington          pointed_soft_point               50     12.11%        8.57%        5.80%        3.76%        2.39%        1.68%
220_Swift            Remington          Point Soft Point                 50     21.15%       15.30%       10.88%        7.43%        4.85%        3.11%
223_Remington        Remington          Hollow Point Power-Lokt          55     16.16%       12.57%        9.59%        7.08%        5.05%        3.62%
223_Remington        Remington          Pointed Soft Point               55     16.16%       12.24%        9.02%        6.42%        4.42%        3.11%
225_Winchester       Winchester         Pointed Soft Point               55     21.61%       17.00%       13.20%       10.00%        7.32%        5.25%
22-250_Remington     Remington          Pointed Soft Point               55     23.67%       18.21%       13.82%       10.18%        7.24%        5.04%
22-250_Remington_hp  Remington          Hollow Point Power-Lokt          55     23.67%       19.49%       15.92%       12.82%       10.10%        7.74%
223_Remington        Remington          Hollow Point Match               62     16.70%       12.75%        9.46%        6.77%        4.77%        3.46%
243_Winchester       Remington          Point Soft Point                 80     37.71%       32.14%       27.15%       22.56%       18.46%       14.82%
25-20_Winchester     Remington          Soft Point                       86      3.61%        2.45%        1.97%        1.82%        1.83%        1.88%
25-06_Remington      Winchester         Positive Expanding Point         90     51.67%       44.42%       37.93%       31.93%       26.49%       21.55%
32_20 Winchester     Remington          Lead                            100      2.78%        2.07%        1.84%        1.79%        1.75%        1.83%
250_Savage           Winchester         Silvertip                       100     35.16%       29.23%       23.84%       19.05%       15.00%       11.97%
243_Winchester       Remington          Point Soft Point Core-Lokt      100     40.66%       38.20%       35.74%       33.28%       30.75%       28.37%
6mm_Remington        Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    100     46.71%       44.08%       41.44%       38.83%       36.20%       33.57%
30_Carbine           Remington          Soft Point                      110     14.94%        9.07%        5.55%        4.11%        3.70%        3.62%
260_Remington        Remington          Nosler Ballistic Tip            120     54.49%       54.46%       54.37%       54.28%       54.18%       54.15%
25-06_Remington      Winchester         Positive Expanding Point        120     60.35%       57.05%       53.70%       50.36%       46.94%       43.56%
7mm-08_Remington     Remington          Hollow Point                    120     60.96%       56.74%       52.63%       48.45%       44.23%       40.30%
762x39mm             Winchester         Soft Point                      123     31.37%       24.75%       19.10%       14.57%       11.42%        9.83%
260_Remington        Remington          Nosler Partition                125     58.23%       57.85%       57.51%       57.10%       56.64%       56.29%
30-06_Springfield    Winchester         Pointed Soft Point              125     75.85%       65.38%       55.72%       46.76%       38.66%       31.58%
270_Winchester       Winchester         Power-Point Plus                130     82.80%       78.68%       74.65%       70.45%       66.27%       62.00%
270_WSM              Winchester         Ballistic Silvertip             130     93.05%       92.53%       92.20%       91.88%       91.69%       91.39%
6.5x55mm Swedish     Norma              Soft point                      139     65.79%       68.45%       70.86%       73.90%       74.74%       76.62%
6.5X55 Swedish       Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    140     50.95%       49.72%       48.34%       46.88%       45.47%       44.17%
6.5x55_Swedish       Winchester         Soft Point                      140     50.95%       50.10%       49.14%       48.17%       47.14%       46.26%
260_Remington        Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    140     63.91%       62.83%       61.67%       60.33%       59.03%       58.02%
7mm-08_Remington     Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    140     71.89%       69.03%       66.10%       62.96%       59.86%       56.70%
7mm-08_Remington     Remington          Pointed Soft Point,Boat Tail    140     71.89%       71.50%       71.01%       70.48%       69.93%       69.38%
7mm-08_Remington     Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    140     71.89%       69.03%       66.10%       62.96%       59.86%       56.70%
270_Winchester       Winchester         Fail Safe                       140     76.51%       72.72%       68.87%       64.87%       60.86%       56.80%
280_Remington        Remington          Pointed Soft Point,Boat Tail    140     82.97%       82.78%       82.67%       82.45%       82.34%       82.22%
280_Remington        Remington          Nosler Ballistic Tip            140     82.97%       84.14%       85.38%       86.74%       88.27%       89.96%
280_Remington        Remington          Power Soft Point Core-Lokt      140     82.97%       80.05%       77.06%       73.86%       70.76%       67.45%
264_Winchester_Mag.  Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    140     85.48%       82.16%       78.90%       75.52%       71.96%       68.42%
270_WSM              Winchester         Fail Safe                       140     93.77%       89.74%       85.68%       81.51%       77.29%       73.00%
7mm_Remington_Mag.   Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    140     98.35%       95.32%       92.23%       89.13%       85.96%       82.68%
7mm_Remington_Mag.   Remington          Pointed Soft Point,Boat Tail    140     98.35%       98.57%       98.88%       99.15%       99.60%      100.25%
7mm_WSM              Winchester         Ballistic Silvertip             140    103.06%      103.87%      104.81%      105.83%      107.16%      108.61%
7mm_STW              Remington          Swift A-Frame PSP               140    112.97%      105.12%       97.58%       90.10%       82.78%       75.50%
7mm_STW              Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    140    112.97%      109.78%      106.72%      103.67%      100.64%       97.35%
7mm_Rem_Ultra_Mag    Remington          PSP Core-Lokt                   140    123.46%      120.19%      117.16%      114.10%      111.22%      108.05%
7mm_Mauser_(7x57)    Winchester         Power-Point                     145     62.03%       57.51%       53.00%       48.39%       44.07%       40.04%
30-30_Winchester     Winchester         Power Point Plus                150     53.80%       40.28%       29.19%       20.84%       15.43%       13.09%
280_Remington        Remington          Power Soft Point Core-Lokt      150     85.13%       79.14%       73.15%       67.03%       61.10%       55.48%
308_Winchester       Winchester         Power-Point Plus                150     86.02%       73.32%       61.62%       50.77%       41.29%       33.52%
30-06_Springfield    Winchester         Power Point                     150     87.80%       75.23%       63.61%       52.84%       43.28%       35.30%
270_Winchester       Winchester         Power-Point Plus                150     90.55%       84.22%       78.06%       71.76%       65.51%       59.60%
7mm_Remington_Mag.   Remington          Swift Scirocco                  150    106.10%      109.84%      113.97%      118.58%      123.75%      129.60%
7mm_Remington_Mag.   Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    150    106.10%       99.28%       92.70%       86.02%       79.24%       72.75%
7mm_Remington_Mag.   Remington          Nosler Ballistic Tip            150    106.10%      108.17%      110.54%      113.13%      115.95%      119.21%
270_WSM              Winchester         Power-Point                     150    110.24%      103.23%       96.34%       89.41%       82.50%       75.60%
300_Winchester_Mag.  Winchester         Fail Safe                       150    122.19%      111.66%      101.54%       91.70%       82.14%       72.85%
357_Mag.             Winchester         Jacketed Soft Point             158     23.99%       14.13%        8.94%        7.21%        6.68%        6.57%
30-06_Springfield    Winchester         Silvertip                       160     98.89%       89.34%       80.02%       70.82%       62.29%       54.36%
7mm_Remington_Mag.   Winchester         Fail Safe                       160     99.92%       95.72%       91.51%       99.28%       82.62%       78.09%
7mm_Remington_Mag.   Remington          Nosler Partition                160    103.03%      103.89%      104.88%      105.80%      106.96%      108.15%
30-06_Springfield    Winchester         Pointed Soft Point              165     93.69%       90.29%       86.75%       82.95%       79.20%       75.39%
30-06_Springfield    Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    165     93.69%       86.25%       78.83%       71.51%       64.32%       57.72%
280_Remington        Remington          Soft Point Core-Lokt            165     95.72%       83.82%       72.48%       61.80%       52.07%       43.86%
308_Winchester       Winchester         Ballistic Silvertip             168     84.24%       84.24%       84.23%       83.99%       84.01%       84.00%
30-30_Winchester     Winchester         Power-Point                     170     48.25%       38.30%       29.84%       23.32%       18.97%       17.17%
32 Win Special       Remington          Soft Point Core-Lokt            170     51.62%       39.90%       30.24%       22.85%       18.22%       16.35%
8mm_Mauser_(8x57)    Winchester         Powe-Point                      170     59.56%       42.97%       30.01%       20.97%       15.91%       14.26%
7x64                 Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    175     89.35%       87.15%       84.66%       82.07%       79.47%       77.02%
7mm_Remington_Mag.   Remington          Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt    175    112.31%      110.34%      108.24%      105.95%      103.58%      101.12%
38-40_Winchester     Winchester         Soft Point                      180      7.93%        6.30%        5.78%        5.61%        5.61%        5.76%
30-40_Krag           Winchester         Power-Point                     180     72.90%       58.35%       45.60%       35.19%       27.53%       23.13%
303_British          Winchester         Power Point                     180     75.63%       70.25%       64.81%       59.42%       54.46%       50.08%
308_Winchester       Winchester         Power Point                     180     91.37%       74.19%       58.93%       45.88%       35.60%       28.73%
30-06_Springfield    Winchester         Power-Point                     180    100.00%       98.23%       96.44%       94.27%       92.24%       90.22%
30-06_Springfield    Winchester         Silvertip                       180    100.00%       94.96%       89.81%       84.49%       79.24%       74.17%
30-06_Springfield    Remington          Nosler Partition                180    100.00%      100.00%      100.00%      100.00%      100.00%      100.00%

30-06_Springfield    Remington          Nosler Partition                180    100.00%      100.00%      100.00%      100.00%      100.00%      100.00%
300_H&H._Mag.        Winchester         fail safe                       180    121.36%      114.51%      107.65%      100.69%       93.68%       86.75%
300_Winchester_Mag.  Winchester         Fail Safe                       180    131.76%      128.66%      125.28%      121.81%      118.30%      114.67%
300_WSM              Winchester         Fail Safe                       180    133.09%      129.93%      126.80%      123.41%      120.01%      116.30%
300_Wby._Mag.        Remington          Pointed soft point corelock     180    154.30%      148.53%      151.11%      136.82%      130.67%      124.45%
300_Wby._Mag.        Remington          Pointed Soft Point,Boat Tail    190    157.43%      159.31%      161.27%      163.55%      166.07%      168.77%
44-40_Winchester     Remington          Soft Point                      200     10.57%        7.93%        7.10%        6.80%        6.72%        6.78%
35_Remington         Winchester         Power-Point                     200     51.68%       34.73%       23.16%       16.92%       14.84%       14.57%
375_Winchester       Winchester         Power-Point                     200     66.77%       48.59%       34.60%       24.98%       20.09%       18.75%
356_Winchester       Winchester         Power-Point                     200     93.36%       73.58%       56.49%       42.75%       32.90%       27.46%
358_Winchester       Winchester         Silvertip                       200     96.81%       79.69%       64.26%       51.11%       40.77%       33.88%
348_Winchester.      Winchester         Silvertip                       200    100.35%       84.64%       70.09%       57.25%       46.70%       43.05%
35_Whelen            Remington          Pointed Soft-Point              200    120.03%      104.72%       90.14%       76.53%       64.40%       54.51%
8mm_Remington_Mag.   Remington          Swift A-Frame PSP               200    152.94%      140.55%      128.09%      115.86%      104.14%       93.07%
338_Winchester_Mag.  Winchester         Power-Point                     200    162.63%      146.25%      130.39%      115.04%      100.36%       87.01%
44_Remington_Mag.    Remington          Semi-Jacketed Hollow Point      210     48.94%       27.66%       16.54%       12.79%       11.69%       11.31%
30-06_Springfield    Remington          Pointed Soft-Point Core-Lokt    220    106.21%       91.07%       77.01%       64.43%       54.10%       46.61%
44 Remington Magnum  Remington          Semi-jacketed Hollow Point      240     49.23%       29.47%       19.38%       16.11%       15.16%       15.03%
44_Remington_Mag.    Remington          Soft Point                      240     49.23%       29.47%       19.38%       16.11%       15.16%       15.03%
44_Remington_Mag.    Remington          Semi-Jacketed Hollow Point      240     49.23%       29.47%       19.38%       16.11%       15.16%       15.03%
444_Marlin           Remington          Soft Point                      240    117.20%       67.06%       36.59%       22.66%       18.66%       17.37%
35_Whelen            Remington          Pointed Soft-Point              250    135.46%      129.06%      122.59%      115.95%      109.51%      104.18%
338_Rem_Ultra_Mag    Remington          PSP Core-Lokt                   250    229.25%      225.71%      221.77%      217.71%      213.60%      209.02%
38-55_Winchester     Winchester         Soft Point                      255     23.44%       21.34%       20.55%       21.00%       22.55%       24.96%
375_H&H_Mag.         Winchester         Fail Safe                       270    217.55%      207.99%      197.81%      187.56%      177.09%      167.19%
375_Rem_Ultra_Mag    Remington          Soft Point                      270    278.75%      237.58%      199.68%      164.74%      133.85%      108.81%
44_Remington_Mag.    Remington          JHP Core-Lokt                   275     46.76%       31.83%       24.03%       21.53%       21.16%       21.70%
45-70_Government     Winchester         Jacketed Hollow Point           300     93.76%       78.72%       63.39%       51.90%       47.22%       46.15%
375_H&H_Mag.         Winchester         Fail Safe                       300    228.51%      223.40%      217.98%      211.97%      206.05%      200.87%
375_Rem_Ultra_Mag    Remington          Swift A-Frame                   300    296.68%      275.47%      253.85%      232.25%      211.58%      191.90%
416_Remington_Mag.   Remington          Swift A-Frame PSP               400    346.77%      320.55%      294.07%      268.44%      244.79%      225.17%
458_Winchester_Mag   Winchester         Soft Point                      510    346.21%      280.85%      225.38%      182.76%      156.56%      148.14%

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revised November 1,2000
revised January 5,2001 added Comparative Ballistics jnh.
revised February 5,2001 added more Comparative Ballistics jnh.
revised February 13,2001 answered to question on projectile diameter jnh.
revised February 26,2001 Added Email and FAQ .
revised February 28,2001 Added the factor to convert grains to slugs.
revised March 20,2001 Added the rotation of the bullet comparison.
revised March 27,2001 Added the car impact comparison.
revised May 02,2001 Added the slow down of bullet with air comparison.
revised May 09,2001 Changed meteorite to meteor as a meteor has successfully reached the earth becomes a meteorite.
revised June 26,2001 Minor touchup on wordsmithing. Perhaps it needs more of this but I'll have to find the time.
revised July 6,2001 added access counter for the curious.
revised August 14,2001 added angle impact with water from reader query.
revised September 21,2001 5.56 Nato and 7.62x39mm compared.
revised September 29,2001 Picture of reloading bench added link.
revised October 02,2001 Added interesting link on 5.56 nato.
revised October 03,2001 Added hydrostatic shock discussion on 5.56 nato.
revised October 04,2001 Added cartridge efficiency discussion.
revised October 04,2001 Added compare7 Ballistics calculator.
revised October 04,2001 Added Message Board Ballistics Posting.
revised October 06,2001 Added greater illustration to controversial hydrostatic shock
revised October 06,2001 explained why the bullet proof plastic failed.
revised October 24,2001 showed that energy per momentum is .5 * velocity
revised October 27,2001 Test results on penetration of slow verses fast
revised November 23,2001 Shotgun effect on the rabid bear.
revised December 11,2001 Shotgun slug rate among the big guns .
revised December 22,2001 Added the 405 Winchester info from A.R.M.
revised January 01,2002 Corrected the weight of a grain in slugs 225214.55152 225179.5 per slug is wrong. also added some related explanations.
revised January 19,2002 added the 17 HMR eval
revised February 18,2002 added the 45 ACP addendum test.
revised March 18,2002 corrected typos.
revised April 2,2002 corrected some math.
revised June 26,2002 added muzzle,100,200,300,400,500 rating of KP.
revised July 12,2002 related KP with momentum properties.
revised July 23,2002 finally learned to spell Ballistics
revised July 26,2002 removed the headon car analogy due to relativity.
revised August 26,2002 percentage of energy distribution of recoil.
revised September 9,2002 f/s to ft/s for clarity and trunc numbers for same.
revised September 9,2002 settled on 225218 as grains to slug conversion.
revised November 26,2002 Added the E/M formula and explanation
revised November 27,2002 revised E/M formula and explanation there was a mistake
revised December 11,2002 Added a Summary.
revised December 22,2002 Modified compare2.html.
revised January 23,2003 200 yard 45 acp 9mm compared.
revised May 23,2003 100 yard 45 acp, 9mm, 7.62X25mm, etc compared.
revised December 7,2003 hard vs soft medium penetration and velocity.
revised March 3,2004 punch, splash , crator
revised June 7,2004 6.8 Remington SPC added
revised November 28,2004 added the 30-06 comparison to 180 gr
revised December 16, 2011 added bullet toughness with some formatting.
revised December 7, 2013 added thought control statement.
revised January 12, 2014 used spell checker, needs more.
revised January 14, 2014 added book order icon as header.
revised September 13, 2014 added ballisticsbytheinch link.